CAW National Council 4000
Occupational Health and Safety

Hazardous Substances:  Ammonia

Ammonia can create ill-health effects if inhaled, if it comes in contact with the eyes or skin, and if it is swallowed.

Short-Term Effects

Ammonia is a severe irritant of the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. It may cause burning and tearing of the eyes, runny nose,
coughing, chest pains, cessation of respiration, and death. It may cause severe breathing difficulties which may be delayed in onset.
Exposure of the eyes to high gas concentrations may produce temporary blindness and severe eye damage. Exposure of the skin to
high concentrations of the gas may cause burning and blistering of the skin. Contact with liquid ammonia may produce severe eye
and skin burns. Contact of the eyes, nose, throat and skin with solutions of ammonia may produce severe burns.

Long-Term Effects

Repeated exposure to ammonia gas may cause chronic irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.


Enclose process
Local exhaust ventilation
General dilution ventilation
Personal protective equipment


ACGIH TLV 25 PPM (17 mg/m3)  

Source:  CAW Health, Safety & Environment Department